Jolanta Sabaitė (Vilnius University, Lithuania). The Ritual and Cultic Functions of Oak in Germanic and Baltic Traditions. – In: Languages and Cultures of the Baltic Region: Collection of Papers. Vol. 2. – Rīga: Sociālo tehnoloģiju augstskola (STA), 2007. ISBN 978-9984-39-253-0.
For thousands of years, people have attributed magical powers to trees, which were said to have particular healing powers or transferring messages for mankind. The oak tree was one of the most famous magical trees, and it was considered sacred in many parts of the world. In Germanic tradition, it was a symbol of strength and endurance.. Baltic customs considered oak to be sacred too. This tee was associated with gods of thunder and lightning, due to the fact that it was struck by lightning more often than other trees; similarly to Germanic custom, it symbolized strength, protection and durability.